Carolina Journal News Reports
RALEIGH ó If you donít buy into the notion that newer is better, or that modern ideas trump those steeped in tradition, you might appreciate the journal Modern Age. The editor of that internationally known publication is R.V. Young, professor of English at North Carolina State University. In a public presentation, Young described how ďLiberal Learning Confronts the Composition Despots.Ē That title referred to the teaching of college-level English composition classes. Young discussed the topic with Mitch Kokai for Carolina Journal Radio. (Click here to find a station near you or to learn about the weekly CJ Radio podcast.)
Kokai: You used English composition as sort of the micro-example of the macro world of poor changes in the way people are taught in universities. Why did you choose English composition?
Young: There are two reasons. One is itís the field I know most about. Iím in an English department, and Iíve taught the course. Second, however, a point I made in the talk is that everybody takes English when you go to the university. Itís the course that touches virtually every student who comes through, and itís also that the composition course is the foundation for all the reading and writing that students will do throughout the rest of their university studies. So itís very fundamental. Changes in it are going to affect education throughout the four-year program and beyond.
Kokai: English composition was taught in what way when you started, and how has it changed?
Young: When I started, it was taught mostly by tenure-track faculty, usually by assistant professors of the sort I was at the time. Essentially, what we did was bring to the course our training in literature: how to read rich, complex works and understand them, and then how to write about them. We used the skills that we ourselves were developing as budding scholars of writing and organizing ideas and writing as best we could in a reasonable, clear, and literate style. We taught the students in our classes almost in an apprentice fashion, letís say. We taught them the things that we were doing.
Over the course of the last 30 to 40 years, composition teaching has been taken over by a kind of cadre of theorists who keep coming up with new, different sorts of social science-based ideas of how students learn. They have banished literature from the writing classroom. I have heard many of them say that reading and writing have nothing to do with each other, which sounds to me like saying talking and listening have nothing to do with each other. Of course, weíve all run into people who talk without listening, but I donít think thatís a good example. So itís a bad idea.
Nowadays, tenure-track faculty, even assistant professors, donít ever teach freshman composition. They havenít had the theoretical training. They havenít studied a little watered-down cognitive science. So instead of teaching composition being a practice that older, more experienced writers share with young novices in the field, itís become almost a sort of pseudo-scientific discipline in which theyíre manipulated into learning how to do things according to the scheme that the theorists have developed.
Kokai: With the change that you just outlined, what types of problems does that create for students and their ability to learn the type of knowledge they need when they get out of a university?
Young: In freshman composition nowadays, they do some reading, but itís always contemporary and, in my view, rather shallow, timely things about popular culture. They are not asked to read and reflect upon what we would call the classics of Western literature and thought. Iím using literature rather broadly here. I donít mean just stories, plays, poems, novels, that sort of thing. I would consider in this context Aristotle and Plato and John Locke, to take a nice example, as works of literature, classic works that have laid the foundations of Western civilization. If they know these works, have been forced to read them carefully, think about them, write about them, then they will be able to judge and assess the things that are coming at them at record pace over the Internet and through all the various digital media, all that information and data out there. Theyíll at least have some basis for assessing it, judging it, evaluating it.
The way weíre teaching freshman composition, we are basically steeping the students in the world theyíre already in, the student world of texting and twittering and pop culture and that kind of thing, so theyíre trapped in it. They never get out of it. Itís as if they are being kept in an extended childhood, insofar as the content of their courses is the content of their texting and their Facebook pages and so on.
Kokai: To some extent ó Iím paraphrasing you, so please correct me if Iím wrong ó but I got the sense from your presentation that because these students are not being taught in the traditional way, theyíre not getting the ammunition they need to confront all of the pundits and politicians who will tell them what those pundits and politicians think they want to hear.
Young: Thatís exactly right. If all youíve ever read are popular accounts of emerging issues ó and it doesnít matter if itís someone on the left or on the right ó if all you know is what people are saying right now with a specific political agenda, you donít know the sources of Western civilization, Western politics, morals, religion, that these current commentators and politicians are trying to reinforce, change, make an impact of some kind on. So you canít really bring a learned judgment to it.
Just take politics: If you havenít read Platoís Republic and Aristotleís Politics and Ciceroís speeches and people like Locke and Hobbes, people like Edmund Burke, then you donít have a basis for deciding between, say, George Bush and John Kerry, or Barack Obama and John McCain. If you have read this long tradition, then you have a context in which to assess people who are trying to persuade you to make very important decisions nowadays. Youíve got a context for judging it.
Kokai: If we wanted to change the situation and return some of the critical thinking that is actually part of the education process ó and not what passes for critical thinking today ó what would change?
Young: We would have to have a far more set, rigorous curriculum than we do now. Freshman composition should be two semesters rather than one, as it is now. It should involve substantial reading in standard classic works from the past of the Western tradition. The curriculum, on the whole, should have more common courses. Students can get a degree in most institutions of higher learning nowadays, and they will have no common core at all. They may not have read any of the same books, learned any of the same skills. In order to be educated, you have to share a common fund of knowledge, an outlook, a set of skills, with other educated men and women. What weíve got now is a huge smorgasbord.